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Photo of Delaware Business Litigation Report Lewis H. Lazarus
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Lewis H. Lazarus, Chair of the Corporate and Commercial Litigation Group, focuses his practice on corporate governance and commercial matters in the Delaware Court of Chancery. He has …

Showing 48 posts by Lewis H. Lazarus.

Delaware Supreme Court Affirms 'MFW' Dismissal; Clarifies Ab Initio Requirement

In 2014, the Delaware Supreme Court in Kahn v. MFW held that the business judgment standard could apply to review of a controlling stockholder merger if at the outset the controlling stockholder conditioned the squeeze-out transaction on negotiation and approval by a committee of independent and disinterested directors and the informed, uncoerced approval of a majority of the minority stockholders (dual stage approvals). The Delaware Supreme Court later affirmed a Delaware Court of Chancery transcript opinion holding that MFW could apply to a pleadings-stage dismissal where the controlling stockholder did not condition its initial proposal on the dual stage approvals, at least where the board, with the majority stockholder’s participation, did so in a resolution establishing a special committee to negotiate prior to any substantive negotiations. The question remained, however, how much latitude the court would afford a controlling stockholder who did not ab initio condition its merger transaction on the requisite dual stage approvals. In Flood v. Synutra International, C. A. No. 101, 2018 (Del. Oct. 9, 2018), the Supreme Court in a majority opinion provided additional guidance, holding that the MFW standard of review could apply to a transaction where the controlling stockholder did not from the beginning condition its transaction on the requisite dual stage approvals, as long as those conditions were established prior to any substantive economic negotiations. The court’s holding and its reasoning provide important guidance to transactional planners and litigators assessing whether to challenge a controlling stockholder merger transaction. More ›

Chancery Awards Fair Value of Member Interest to Expelled Member of Del. LLC

Delaware statutes enabling formation of unincorporated entities like limited liability companies (LLCs) and limited partnerships afford freedom for owners to structure business relationships as they see fit. This freedom carries with it the responsibility  to accurately and completely describe the parties’ rights and duties. It also means that when disputes arise among owners or managers, a Delaware court will resolve the dispute through application of principles of contract interpretation. Moreover, if the parties in their foundational agreement do not address an issue, the court will apply default rules under the applicable business entity statute. The recent case of Domain Associates LLC v. Shah, C.A. No. 12921-VCL (Aug. 13, 2018), well illustrates these principles—the court applied default rules under the Limited Liability Company Act to hold that an expelled member of a Delaware LLC was entitled to the fair value of his interest and not simply to the value of his capital account. More ›

Court of Chancery Awards Damages for Breach of a Director’s Duty of Loyalty

When friends go into business, their ties may fray if the business experiences difficulty and the parties have different views of how to proceed and who is responsible. If the principals are directors of a Delaware corporation, however, their duty of loyalty requires them to eschew self-interest and to do what is best for the corporation and its stakeholders. Moreover, when conflict arises, vague promises among friends do not supplant the requirements for binding agreements. More ›

Chancery Court Nullifies Cancellation of Certificate of Formation of Delaware LLCs

Posted In Articles

Parties who form Delaware limited liability companies to organize their business affairs do so to structure their relationships contractually. This enables them to organize the governance and economic rights in a manner tailored to the enterprise they are establishing. They do so secure in the knowledge that the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act expressly provides that it is the policy of the Delaware act “to give maximum effect to the principle of freedom of contract and to the enforcement of limited liability company agreements.” If the parties ever have a dispute over their internal affairs, then a Delaware court will apply well-settled principles of contract interpretation to resolve it. The recent decision of Capone v. LDH Management Holdings, C.A. No. 11687-VCG (Del. Ch. Apr. 25, 2018), illustrates the court’s application of contract law principles to determine that two Delaware LLCs’ affairs were not wound up in compliance with the Delaware LLC Act resulting in the nullification of prior-filed certificates of cancellation. More ›

Delaware Corporate and Commercial Case Law Year In Review – 2017

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Morris James attorneys Lewis Lazarus, Albert Manwaring and Albert Carroll authored an article published in Transaction Advisors titled Delaware Corporate and Commercial Case Law Year in Review – 2017. The article summarizes ten significant decisions of the Delaware Supreme Court and the Delaware Court of Chancery over the past year, including matters such as appraisal rights, duties in the master limited partnership context, director compensation awards, and preclusion in shareholder derivative litigation.  Continue reading for the full article. More ›

Court of Chancery Dismisses Derivative Action for Failure to Plead Demand Futility

A cardinal principle of Delaware law is that directors manage the business and affairs of a Delaware corporation. This includes decisions regarding whether to pursue claims against officers and directors whose breach of duty may have injured the company. A stockholder who believes that the board is not pursuing claims of wrongdoing that harmed the company must first demand that the board investigate or pursue those claims so that the board has an opportunity to exhaust intra-corporate remedies. 

It is only if the stockholder believes that demand would be futile that the stockholder can skip that step and file a derivative claim on behalf of the corporation. In that circumstance the stockholder must plead adequately why demand would have been futile or have the action dismissed for failure to do so.  Lenois v. Lukman, C. A. No. 11963-VCMR (Del. Ch. Nov. 7) is the most recent guidance from the court on the topic of demand futility and the case illustrates, among other things, that the mere fact that one officer or director may have acted in bad faith does not suffice to excuse demand if the plaintiff is unable to plead particularized facts demonstrating that a majority of the board could not act impartially upon a stockholder demand. Where a company has an exculpatory provision in its charter under Section 102(b)(7) that means a plaintiff must plead facts showing that a majority of the board faces a risk of liability for claims not otherwise exculpated, i.e., claims for violation of the duty of loyalty or for not acting in good faith. More ›

Chancery Dismisses Claim Seeking Damages Post-Closing for Unfair Merger Transaction

Delaware jurisprudence encourages decision-making by boards of independent and disinterested directors. If a transaction does not involve a controlling stockholder and is approved by a majority of disinterested and independent directors, then a plaintiff cannot attack the transaction and seek damages except upon pleading that a majority of the board acted in bad faith. More ›

Court Upholds Stockholder's Share Ownership and Books-and-Records Request

Companies often defend against stockholder requests to inspect books and records by contending that the plaintiff stockholder lacks a proper purpose or that his or her stated purpose is not the real purpose. Less common is a contention that the stockholder lacks standing because his or her shares were canceled due to misconduct harmful to the company, a remedy provided for in a stockholder agreement. Such a claim raises issues under Section 202 of the Delaware General Corporation Law as to the enforceability of the remedy where the restrictions set forth in the stockholder agreement were not conspicuously noted on the share certificate. The recent case of Henry v. Phixios Holdings, C.A. No. 12504-VCMR (July 10), provides guidance on the requirements to enforce a restriction on the ownership or alienability of shares of a Delaware corporation when the restriction is not conspicuously noted on the share certificate. As the Chancery Court held, such a restriction is not enforceable except upon proof that the stockholder had actual knowledge prior to purchase of the shares or subsequently agreed or voted to approve the restriction, proof that Phixios failed to provide. More ›

Court of Chancery Dismisses Post-Closing Challenge to Merger Transaction

Stockholders who believe that a board breached its fiduciary duties in connection with information provided to stockholders asked to vote for a merger transaction can either seek to enjoin the transaction or seek damages post-closing. Of course, the court cannot enjoin a transaction if a stockholder who files a complaint fails to seek injunctive relief, even where that stockholder also alleges disclosure violations. In that circumstance the stockholder post-closing must determine whether to pursue damages, including through quasi-appraisal. In light of the Delaware courts' jurisprudence post-Corwin, such claims are unlikely to succeed where a majority of the disinterested stockholders have approved the merger unless the plaintiff can demonstrate a material disclosure violation or stockholder coercion to approve the merger for reasons unrelated to its merits. The recent Delaware Court of Chancery decision of In Re Cyan Stockholders Litigation, C. A. No. 11027-CB (May 11), dismissing post-closing plaintiffs' claims for breach of fiduciary duty demonstrates the risks stockholder plaintiffs run when they do not seek equitable relief to enjoin a merger transaction and are unable to plead a material disclosure violation sufficient to vitiate approval of the merger transaction by a majority of disinterested stockholders. More ›

Court Gives Great Weight to Pre-Merger Negotiations in Interpreting an Ambiguous Contract

Contract interpretation is a staple of litigation in the Delaware Court of Chancery. Disputes over the meaning of commercial contracts, foundational documents such as certificates of incorporation or bylaws or agreements governing alternative entities such as limited liability companies or limited partnerships require the court to interpret language in contracts. More ›

Court Dismisses Derivative Action in Stockholder's Litigation Demand

The Delaware courts have been critical of litigants who bring derivative claims without first seeking books and records. The absence of such records often makes it difficult to overcome the business judgment rule which prevents a stockholder from bringing derivative claims directly without first making a demand on the board of directors. Stockholders cannot so proceed unless they can show that a majority of directors at the time of the demand was not independent or disinterested or that the decision was not the result of a proper exercise of business judgment. The standard is even more difficult if a stockholder makes a demand which the board refuses and then seeks to proceed with litigation by claiming that the board wrongfully refused the demand. The Delaware Court of Chancery's recent decision in Andersen v. Mattel, C.A. No. 11816-VCMR (Jan. 19), illustrates the difficult burden a plaintiff bears in alleging wrongful refusal, particularly when he fails to use the tools at hand to obtain relevant books and records. More ›

Court Dismisses Derivative Claim for Alleged Breach of Oversight Duty

The Delaware courts encourage plaintiffs who bring derivative claims in Delaware without making demand on the board of directors to seek books and records under Section 220 of the Delaware General Corporation Law so as to be able to plead facts sufficient to demonstrate that demand is excused. Many claims have been dismissed under Delaware Court of Chancery Rule 23.1 because a plaintiff failed to utilize the "tools at hand" to obtain relevant books and records. When a plaintiff grounds its claim on directors' alleged failure to exercise oversight, however, even receipt of books and records may not enable a plaintiff to plead facts sufficient to demonstrate that the directors knowingly ignored their duties so as to have acted in bad faith. That high standard as articulated by the Delaware Supreme Court in Stone v. Ritter makes a Caremark claim for breach of directors' oversight duties as among the most difficult in corporate law. The Court of Chancery's recent decision in Reiter v. Fairbank, C.A. No. 11693-CB (Del. Ch. Oct. 18), demonstrates that, regardless of the injury allegedly sustained by the subject company, a pleading based on books and records obtained from the company that at best reflects awareness of "yellow flags" is not sufficient to call into question the directors' good faith and hence to excuse demand, thus requiring dismissal of the plaintiff's derivative claim. More ›

Court Applies 'Corwin' and Upholds Board's Adoption of Dissolution Plan

Contract and fiduciary duty law intersect when how a board acts, including the vote required, is affected by a shareholder agreement. Such agreements are common to enable investors to protect their investment, either through negotiated buybacks or issuance of additional shares upon certain milestones, through board seats or through super-majority vote requirements where the investment, while substantial, does not result in majority control. When a dispute arises over the effect of a shareholder agreement on a board vote a Delaware court will apply traditional principles of contract interpretation to ascertain and enforce the parties' intent. The language the parties use to reflect their agreement at the time of the investment will determine the outcome of the dispute when it arises long after, such as when the board acts to dissolve the entity. The Delaware Court of Chancery's well-reasoned decision in The Huff Energy Fund v. Gershen, C.A. No. 11116-VCS (Del. Ch. Sept. 29), illustrates the care by which a Delaware court will examine the potential contractual and fiduciary duties at issue when a board adopts a plan of dissolution following a sale of a significant portion of its assets. More ›

Court: Derivative Claims Allowed to Be Asserted as Part of Merger Attack

It is well-settled under Delaware law that in a merger a stockholder loses standing to assert a purely derivative claim. That claim passes instead to the acquiring company. As an asset of a Delaware company, derivative claims should be valued in a merger transaction. Directors of a selling company, however, who fail to value derivative claims and who also bargain for their extinguishment following the merger are at risk of being found to have breached their fiduciary duty.

The Court of Chancery's recent decision in In re Riverstone National Stockholder Litigation, C.A. No. 9796-VCG (Del. Ch. July 28), instructs that a complaint asserting that directors, who faced personal liability on known derivative claims, both attributed no value to the derivative claims and bargained in a merger transaction that the buyer would not assert them, is sufficient to avoid dismissal based on the general rule of post-merger loss of standing, if the stockholder pleads the claims as part of a direct attack on the merger. More ›

Chancery Declines to Require Buyer to Complete Merger Transaction

Parties who at the signing of a merger agreement are eager to close may have a change of heart if intervening adverse market conditions reduce or eliminate the economic benefits.

Those changing market conditions often do not affect the buyer and seller equally. In that circumstance one party may wish to avoid, and the other to consummate, the transaction.

A Delaware court faced with a claim for specific performance on the one hand and a request on the other for declaratory judgment that a party is excused from its contractual obligation will apply traditional principles of contract interpretation and standards applicable to an award of equitable relief. That is exactly what the Delaware Court of Chancery did in denying the plaintiff's request for specific performance in Williams Companies v. Energy Transfer Equity, C.A. No. 12168-VCG (Del. Ch. June 24, 2016), a case with instructive lessons for practitioners regarding when the Court of Chancery will decline specifically to enforce a merger agreement. More ›