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Summaries and analysis of recent Delaware court decisions concerning business-related litigation.
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Showing 167 posts in M&A.
Acquisition agreements frequently contain escrows to cover any claims for breach of the warranties in the agreements or other post-closing claims. But that does not mean that a buyer may set off an unliquidated claim against its post-deal payment obligations under the agreement. As this decision holds, to have that set off ability, the agreement must permit it as a matter of right.
Akorn Inc. v. Fresenius Kabi AG, C.A. No. 2018-0300-JTL (October 1, 2018)
Merger agreements often permit the buyer to terminate items when a material adverse effect occurs. This 247 page opinion provides what may be the definitive analysis of such terms as “material adverse effect,” “reasonable best efforts” and “all actions necessary” that are often found in merger agreements. It is also a great source of the key reference materials that the Court of Chancery is increasingly turning to in interpreting what such terms mean in the real world. For example, it teaches that a MAE clause is focused on the target company’s own performance as different from the industry that it belongs to and explains the degree and length of a downturn needed to find an MAE. More ›
This massive decision is a primer on Delaware director fiduciary duty. It covers just about all the important issues, with an enormous amount of citations and explanation. It is particularly helpful in showing how directors must meet their disclosure obligations, both to their other directors and to stockholders. It is, of course, very much a product of its unique facts. More ›
Under Kahn v. M&F Worldwide Corp., 88 A.3d 635 (Del. 2014), commonly referred to as MFW, a controller may gain the benefit of business judgment review when it conditions a transaction—from the outset (i.e., ab initio)—on two procedural protections. Those involve approval by (i) an independent special committee and (ii) a majority of the minority stockholders. The point of the timing requirement is that the controller disables its influence from the beginning, instead of using the option as a bargaining chip when negotiating economic terms. More ›
Enterprise Holdings Inc. v. Rolen Stockholder Representative LLC, C.A. No. 2017-0422-AGB (Del. Ch. June 27, 2018)
Merger agreements sometimes provide for post-merger purchase price adjustments to be made by an independent accounting firm. This is another decision, in the form of a bench ruling, where the Court of Chancery readily enforces such an agreement, albeit with some guidance to the accountant on what issues are for the accountant to decide and what issues must remain for the Court.
Many merger agreements provide for additional payments after closing depending on the target’s performance. This decision examines certain language controlling the buyer’s obligations to achieve the post-closing milestones. The relevant language was subject to more than one reasonable construction, thus ambiguous, and extrinsic evidence would be necessary to resolve the dispute. Accordingly, the Court denied the buyer’s motion to dismiss.
This is an interesting decision for three reasons. First, it gives a good discussion of when defective corporate acts can be cured under Section 205 of the DGCL. Even a defective merger is possibly subject to Section 205. Second, it has a good outline of when advice of counsel is a good defense to allegations of director liability. Third, it permits a claim to go forward against corporate officers. This is a good reminder that the Delaware exculpation statute does not apply to officers.
This is an important decision because it teaches two important lessons. First, when an asset sale agreement contains explicit requirements on how to give notice of a claim on an escrow account, those requirements must be followed or the claim will be waived. Second, absent fraud, a contractual provision will be enforced that provides that the exclusive remedy for a buyer is a claim on an escrow fund. Thus, for example, a separate breach of contract or negligent representation claim will be dismissed.
When seeking stockholder votes it is not always clear when the company must disclose an opinion of an individual director on the merits of the proposed transaction. This decision reviews the Delaware law and concludes that at least when the director involved is a founder and chairman and voices an opinion that the transaction is not good for the company, that opinion must be disclosed.
Briefly, under Corwin, the informed vote of a majority of the disinterested stockholders subjects a transaction to the business judgment rule when the deal does not involve a conflicted controlling stockholder. Additionally, a “controller” may be a group of stockholders when that group acts together in a way that is not just a concurrence of the members’ self-interest. This decision examines both issues. Further, as this decision explains, pleading around Corwin by adequately alleging a disclosure violation is not enough to sustain a complaint—the stockholder still needs to state a non-exculpated claim in order to pursue a damages action.
As this decision explains, to state a claim attacking a merger on the basis that the Board acted in bad faith you need more than accusations that directors were motivated to avoid a proxy fight involving an activist investor. Informed stockholder approval, disinterested directors, careful consideration, a premium price, reasonable deal protection devices, and prominent advisors all work to negate inferences of bad faith.
This decision begins with a conventional analysis of a claim that disclosure violations and director self-interest have tainted a merger vote. That claim was rejected for want of factual support. More unusual, the decision also rejects the plaintiff’s argument of an alleged independent right to appraisal that, when infringed by disclosure violations, is outside the usual charter exculpation provision for duty of care breaches. As this decision explains, quasi-appraisal is simply a form of remedy, typically sought to address disclosure deficiencies that are the product of a breach of fiduciary duty. Where there is no failure to identify any material misrepresentation or omission, or any other viable claim for breach of fiduciary duty, there is no basis to impose a quasi-appraisal remedy.
Parties to an acquisition often attempt to set limits on what may be recovered in any post-closing dispute between them. This helps the buyer get a lower price in return for the safety the sellers buy with a price concession. Exactly how to do this, however, has proved difficult. The well–known Abry Partners decision sets limits, for example, on what claims may be released in advance, such as a claim for fraud based on deliberate misstatements in a purchase agreement. This decision carefully explains the boundaries of what may be released and how to get the best language to set out the parties’ actual agreement. It is a great guideline to follow.
In its now famous Corwin decision the Delaware Supreme Court held that when a majority of the stockholders in a fully informed, noncoercive vote approve a transaction, the business judgment rule applies and the transaction is virtually immune from attack. However, plaintiffs continue to argue that Corwin did not hold that the stockholder approval precluded a claim based on a Unocal theory that by virtue of excessive deal protection devices the vote was coercive. Such a claim had been upheld in the older Santa Fe case and Corwin expressly declined to overrule Santa Fe. This decision notes that the status of Santa Fe may be unclear, but then goes on to hold that the agreements alleged to be preclusive deal protection devices do not violate Unocal even if it were applicable. More ›
A board must disclose all information material to the stockholder vote for a transaction. Moreover, disclosures may be inadequate when they are buried in various places in a lengthy proxy statement. One piece of material information is conflicts involving the board’s advisors. The Court of Chancery is prepared to preliminary enjoin a transaction where the proxy omits or fails to sufficiently disclose material details concerning, for instance, a banker’s conflict. For example, the inadequately disclosed conflict warranting an injunction in this case involved the fees the buy-side banker expected to receive for its participation in debt financing for the deal.